CHINA

China is a country with centuries-old history, one of the strongest States in today's world, which has reached unprecedented heights in the scientific and cultural development, created the timeless treasures of philosophical thought, art and literature. Chinese civilization that evolved for millennium separately from the West presents us with samples of unrivaled refinement and subtle poetry, haute cuisine and famous martial arts.  

Since 1949 China has been called “The People’s Republic of China”. Today it is a State in East Asia, the most populous state, the world's third largest country after Russia and Canada. In the North it borders Mongolia and Russia, in the North - East with Russia and North Korea, South Vietnam, Myanmar, Laos, India, Bhutan and Nepal, in the West by Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, in the North West with Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. In the East and South-East the country is washed by the waters of the Bohai Sea, the Yellow sea, East China and South China seas, the country has more than 3.4 thousand islands. 

China at the beginning of the 21st century is a space and nuclear power. Building a market economy in China is carried out under the leadership of the Communist Party on the basis of the five-year plans. Economy maintains its diversity. In 2010 the economy of CHINA took second place in the world-largest nominal GDP,ahead of Japan, and 2nd place for GDP calculated at purchasing power parity. According to the Constitution the REPUBLIC of CHINA is a socialist State, but about 70%of GDP is ensured by private enterprises. 

With a high share of foreign investment, nearly 80% of all foreign investors into the economy of the PRC are ethnic Chinese living abroad. To facilitate structural change, China develops its own system of education, teaching students abroad(especially in the United States and Japan), encourages the importation of technologies that promote such progressive sectors of the economy as production software, new materials, telecommunication industry, biotechnology, health service. In CHINA there are more than 384 million Internet users, it also leads the world in the number of users of mobile telephony. In the area of Hajdian North of Beijing there is a Chinese "Silicon Valley". 

China leads the world in mining of coal, iron, manganese, lead-zinc, antimony and tungsten ores, and also of wood; it is the world's largest manufacturer of Coke, pig iron, steel and steel pipe, aluminum, zinc, Tin, nickel, and also televisions,radios and mobile phones, washing and sewing machines, bicycles and motorcycles, watches and cameras, fertilizer, cotton and silk textiles, cement,shoes, meat, wheat, rice, sorghum, potato, cotton, tobacco, apples, vegetables,silkworms cocoons; has the world's largest livestock of poultry, pigs, sheep,goats, horses and yaks, as well as leads in catching fish. In addition, China is one of the three largest automakers (7.2 million in 2006), after Japan and the United States. Oil, gas, rare earth metal (molybdenum, vanadium, antimony),uranium are being produced on Chinese territory. Items marked "made in China" can be seen all over the world. China produces more than 50% of cameras, 30% of air conditioners, 25% of washing machines and approximately 20% of refrigerators sold in the world. 

The typical feature of modern China's economy is its dependence on external markets. In terms of exports the PRC took 1st place in the world. Since 1989, the average annual growth of import and export trade in China is 15%. Export gives 80%foreign exchange earnings.  Export industries employ about 20 million people. 20% of industrial and agricultural products of GDP are exported to the foreign markets. Nomenclature of export has 50 000 items. China maintains trade and economic relations with 182 countries and parts of the world, with 80 of them intergovernmental trade agreements and protocols are signed. China's major trading partners are the developed capitalist countries, notably Japan, the United States, and Western European States, which account for 55% of foreign trade turnover. Most competitive products are still shoes, clothes and toys, but export of electronics, bicycles, motorbikes and vehicles, transport and construction engineering increasingly develops. The textile industry of China is the world’s first, so China’s export is represented in most countries. Chinese exports coming to North America, Japan,Western Europe has the highest quality standards. What is so attracted to European businessmen in China? In addition to the rapid growth of China's economy which is among the highest in the world, this most populous country has the highest consumer potential that is difficult to compete for any other country. Therefore the main motives for entering the Chinese market are the giant potential of it, its huge size and proximity to other Asian fast growing markets, low production costs, export promotion by the State. 

In the Republic of China great attention is paid on cooperation with the World Trade Organization. The Republic of China not only has been a full member of this vital international trade organization, but also actively participates in its activities in certain matters affecting the adoption of important decisions of the WTO.

The PRC also actively participates in the work of one of the most important international organizations - the Asia-Pacific economic cooperation. Taipei has been for many years in the Organization and actively participates in its work on the rights of full membership. Countries and territories that are members of APEC represent over 60% of world GDP and 47% of world trade. 

China is also part of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), an international regional organization established in the territory of the former USSR. The SCO member countries — Kazakhstan,Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, the People's Republic of China.China sees the SCO as a promising market and would like to form a common economic space here. It is China that currently acts as the main engine of the trade and economic cooperation within the SCO. Beijing is showing interest in investing substantial funds in economic projects in the territories of the Member States. 

Chinese holidays: 

January 1 –New year.

January 26– Chinese New year

May 1 – The Labor Day. Official public holidays: May 1, 2 and 3. Through the relocation of other holidays on May 1 people have rest for 7 days.

July 1 –the Day of foundation of the Communist Party of China.

October 1 – the Day of foundation of the People's Republic of China. It is China's main state holiday. Celebration of the founding of the People's Republic lasts for seven days, it is week of holidays, one of three “golden” weeks held annually in China (holidays, along with associated Chun Jie – traditional lunar new year and may holidays).