RUSSIA

Russia is a country located in Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the largest State in the world (17 075 400 km²). The population is 141 296 927 people (for 2010);currently the country is ranked ninth in the world by this term. Russia shares borders with 18 countries (the biggest number in the world), including following States: Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Belarus,Ukraine, Georgia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China,Mongolia, North Korea by land; Japan and the United States – by sea. Russia is democratic federal presidential-parliamentary Republic, with broad powers of the President.

Russia is one of the key players in international communication. As one of the five permanent members of the UN SECURITY COUNCIL remains one of the traditional great powers,and bears a special responsibility for maintaining international peace and security. Russia is also part of the "big Eight" economically developed nations. It is a member of a large number of other international organizations, including the Council of Europe and OSCE. Such organizations as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Organization of the Collective Security Treaty (CSTO), the Eurasian Economic Community (EURASEC), and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) established in the territory of the former USSR largely under the leadership of Russia are particularly noteworthy.Economy of Russia is the 6th largest economy in the world by GDP by purchasing power parity (for 2010). Russia's nominal GDP for 2009 amounted to 39 trillion rubles ($1.23 trillion). According to the 2007 year, the share of the Russian economy in the world economy is 3.2%.

Russia has the world's largest known natural gas reserves and is the largest manufacturer of it.In addition, Russia shares the first - the second largest volume of crude oil,and by export volume it ranks second. There are large deposits of coal in the Komi Republic, in Eastern Siberia and the Far East. Russia is rich in iron ore,bauxite, nickel, Tin, gold, diamonds, Platinum, lead, zinc. The Russian company ALROSA is the world's largest for exploration, mining and sales of adamants.

In the structure of the Russian economy the service sector (commerce, transport, restaurants,hotels, telecommunications, finance, real estate, public administration,security, education, health and other services) dominates. It is 48.6% of GDP.In addition, there are also manufacturing (food processing, textile and garment manufacturing, manufacture of leather products, footwear, wood processing,production of wood, pulp and paper industry, publishing, printing, production of coke and petroleum products, chemical manufacturing, manufacture of rubber and plastic products, manufacture of other non-metallic mineral products,metallurgical production, manufacture of machinery and equipment, electrical,electronic and optical equipment, production equipment, vehicles and other production) - 16.4% of GDP, mining accounted for only 9.0% of GDP. Construction is only 5.1% of GDP; agriculture, forestry and fishing accounted for 4.5% of GDP in Russia. Production and distribution of electricity, gas and water has the lowest share - 2.7% of GDP.

Shipbuilding in Russia is traditionally one of the most technologically advanced industries.Russian wharves have experience of building ships of any class, type and tonnage. This sector has the largest producers of power systems and automation systems. Scientific capacity of research and engineering institutes, industry and academic laboratories allows not only to track unique orders for engineering vessels, but also to develop new conceptual directions in shipbuilding.

In 2008 1.471 million cars and 256 thousand trucks were produced in Russia. In the same year,Russia exported 132 thousand cars and 45 thousand trucks for a total of $ 1.7 billion. Between 2000 and 2010 in Russia there were opened several dozen automobile plants, producing cars under the brand of famous manufacturers,including Volkswagen, Skoda, BMW, Ford, Renault, Toyota, Chevrolet, Automobile Alliance Peugeot-Citroen-Mitsubishi, Nissan, Opel, Kia, Volvo Truck and some others. New plants are still being opened. 

Major trading partners of Russia are Germany, the turnover amounted to $ 67.3 billion, the Netherlands - $61.8 billion, China - $55.9 billion, Italy - $52.9 billion,Turkey - $33.8 billion, Japan — $29 billion, the United States is $27.3 billion, Poland - $27.2 billion, the United Kingdom — $22.5 billion, Finland —$22.4 billion. Russia exports mainly hydrocarbon raw materials (oil, gas, and coal), oil products, metal products, wood and timber, machinery and equipment,weapons, chemical fertilizers, wheat. The largest three goods of exports in January - November 2010: crude oil is 33% (of total value of exports), oil - 17.7%, natural gas -10.9%. Leading imports in January-November 2010: machines and equipment — 42.9%of total imports, cars — 5%, medicines - 4.1%, meat and fish (2.8%), apparel (2.5%).The largest exporter of goods to Russia is Germany ($21.2 billion in 2009).

Several international transport corridors pass the territory of Russia:"East-West" or "Transsiberian" (Europe-Russia-Japan with branches from the Russian Federation: Kazakhstan-China, Mongolia and China, the Korean peninsula), “North-South” (North Europe-Russia-Iran-India, has a branch in the Persian Gulf, Caucasus, Central Asia. This corridor uses deep Volgo-Don River system), “the Northern sea route” (Europe – countries of Asia-Pacific region).

January 1 – New year's day (non-working days: from 1 to 5 January). 

January 7 –Christmas by the Russian Orthodox Church.

February 23 – the Day of Defenders of the Fatherland (a successor to the Red Army Day and the day the Soviet army and Navy, originally erected in memory of the first fighting of the newly created Red Army against German forces during World War I in 1918). 

March 8 –International Women's day (originally set as a day to commemorate the struggle of women workers in 1910 at the eighth Congress of II International, in the RSFSR and USSR was celebrated since 1921). 

May 1 - Labor Day (in the RSFSR and USSR is an official holiday since 1918 as Labor Day). 

May 9 – Victory day (installed in SOVIET victory over Germany in World War II in 1945). 

June 12 – Day of Russia (erected in honor of the adoption of the Declaration on States over eighty of the RSFSR in 1990). 

November 4 – Day of National Unity (from 1649 till 1917 was celebrated as day of the Kazan ikon of the mother of God, again installed in 2004 to commemorate the liberation of Moscow from Polish invaders that occurred during a Vague time in 1612). 

In addition,Russia celebrates a number of professional and religious holidays.